Research Article| Volume 74, 104723, June 2023

Validation of an iPad version of the Brief International Cognitive Assessment for Multiple Sclerosis (BICAMS)


      • The BICAMS is the most widely used screening tool for cognitive impairment in MS
      • We developed a tablet version of the BICAMS (iBICAMS)
      • The iBICAMS showed a high reliability over the paper version
      • iBICAMS could become a standard in clinical practice for cognitive assessment of MS



      The Brief International Cognitive Assessment for Multiple Sclerosis (BICAMS) is the most widely used screening tool for cognitive impairment in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). However, the administration and scoring procedures of the paper version are time consuming and prone to errors. Aim of our study was to develop a tablet version of BICAMS (iBICAMS), and to assess its reliability compared to the paper version.


      We administered both BICAMS and iBICAMS to 139 MS patients in two different sessions. We compared scores on both versions using a paired t-test. We used a repeated measures ANOVA to test the impact of rater, order of administration and test-retest time on test-retest performances. We used the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) to assess the reliability between BICAMS and iBICAMS.


      All three sub-tests of the BICAMS (SDMT, CVLT-II and BVMT-R) were different between the paper and the tablet versions. Order of administration influenced test-retest performances at the SDMT (p<0.001), CVLT- II (p<0.001) and BVMT-R (p<0.001). Intraclass coefficient correlation (ICC) revealed a high level of agreement between the paper BICAMS and the iPad version for all three tests: SDMT (0.92), CVLT-II (0.83) and BVMT-R (0.82).


      We found a high reliability between BICAMS and iBICAMS. Considering the inherent advantages of automated scoring, digital storage of data, standardized timing, the iBICAMS could become a standard in clinical practice.


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