Commentary| Volume 75, 104721, July 2023

Effects of flexible scheduling and virtual visits on burnout for clinicians: 1- year follow-up

      Burnout is increasingly recognized as a significant concern for healthcare providers and organizations. The term "burnout" in a clinical context dates back to the 1970s, when it was first used to describe the consequences of severe work-related stress (
      • Freudenberger H.J
      Staff burn-out.
      ). The term has been expanded over time, and now explains a multidimensional stress syndrome consisting of: emotional exhaustion, negative perceptions and feelings about patients (depersonalization) and reduced perceptions of professional competence or accomplishment (
      • Maslach C.
      • Jackson S.E.
      The measurement of experienced burnout.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Chandawarkar A.
        • Chaparro J.D.
        Burnout in clinicians.
        Curr. Probl. Pediatr. Adolesc. Health Care. 2021; 51101104
        • Dyrbye L.N.
        • Varkey P.
        • Boone S.L.
        • Satele D.V.
        • Sloan J.A.
        • Shanafelt T.D.
        Physician satisfaction and burnout at different career stages.
        Mayo Clin. Proc. 2013 Dec; 88: 1358-1367
        • Freudenberger H.J
        Staff burn-out.
        J. Soc. Issues. 1972; 30: 159-165
        • Hakanen J.J.
        • Schaufeli W.B.
        Do burnout and work engagement predict depressive symptoms and life satisfaction? A three-wave seven-year prospective study.
        J. Affect. Disord. 2012; 141: 415-424
        • Hall L.H.
        • Johnson J.
        • Watt I.
        • Tsipa A.
        • O'Connor D.B
        Healthcare staff wellbeing, burnout, and patient safety: a systematic review.
        PLoS One. 2016; 11e0159015
      1. Kane, L. (2021). ‘Death by 1000 cuts’: medscape national physician burnout and suicide report 2021. Published January 22, 2021:

        • Laraja K.
        • Mansfield L.
        • de Ferranti S.
        • Elia E.
        • Gudanowski B.
        • Gurvitz M.
        • Gauthier N
        Disproportionate negative career impact of the covid-19 pandemic on female pediatric cardiologists in the Northeast United States.
        Pediatr. Cardiol. 2022; 43: 1913-1921
        • Linzer M.
        • Poplau S.
        • Babbott S.
        • Collins T.
        • Guzman-Corrales L.
        • Menk J.
        • Murphy M.L.
        • Ovington K.
        Worklife and wellness in academic general internal medicine: results from a national survey.
        J. Gen. Intern. Med. 2016 Sep; 31 (Epub 2016 May 2. PMID: 27138425; PMCID: PMC4978678): 1004-1010
        • Maslach C.
        • Jackson S.E.
        The measurement of experienced burnout.
        J. Organ. Behav. 1981; 2: 99-113
        • Shanafelt T.D.
        • Noseworthy J.H.
        Executive leadership and physician well-being: nine organizational strategies to promote engagement and reduce burnout.
        Mayo Clin. Proc. 2017; 92: 129-146
        • Shanafelt T.D.
        • Gorringe G.
        • Menaker R.
        • Storz K.A.
        • Reeves D.
        • Buskirk S.J.
        • Sloan J.A.
        • Swensen S.J.
        Impact of organizational leadership on physician burnout and satisfaction.
        Mayo Clin. Proc. 2015; 90: 432-440
        • Shanafelt T.D.
        • West C.P.
        • Dyrbye L.N.
        • Trockel M.
        • Tutty M.
        • Wang H.
        • Carlasare L.E.
        • Sinsky C.
        Changes in burnout and satisfaction with work-life integration in physicians during the first 2 years of the COVID-19 pandemic.
        Mayo Clin. Proc. 2022 Dec; 97: 2248-2258
        • Sullivan A.B.
        • Davin S.A.
        • Lapin B.
        • Schuster A.T.
        • Dweik R.A.
        • Murray K.F.
        • Rehm S.J.
        • Machado A.G
        Effects of flexible scheduling and virtual visits on burnout for clinicians.
        Mult. Scler. Relat. Disord. 2022; 60103705
        • Swensen S.
        • Kabcenell A.
        • Shanafelt T.
        Physician-organization collaboration reduces physician burnout and promotes engagement: the Mayo Clinic experience.
        J. Healthc. Manag. 2016; 61: 105-127
        • Wright A.A.
        • Katz I.T.
        Beyond burnout—redesigning care to restore meaning and sanity for physicians.
        N. Engl. J. Med. 2018; 378: 309-311