A coffee enriched with guarana, selenium, and L-carnitine (GSC) has nutrigenomic effects on oxi-inflammatory markers of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients: a pilot study

Published:January 13, 2023DOI:


      • GSC is capable of decreasing oxidized DNA of RRMS patients.
      • GSC decreases inflammatory cytokines of RRMS patients.
      • GSC did not affect kidney and liver function of RRMS patients.


      Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) is the most common clinical course of multiple sclerosis (MS), characterized by a chronic inflammatory state and elevated levels of oxidative markers. Food supplements with potential anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and neuroprotective effects have been tested as possible adjuvants in the treatment of MS. In this sense, this pilot study was carried out with the aim of verifying whether a minimum daily dose of a guarana, selenium and L-carnitine (GSC) based multi supplement, mixed in cappuccino-type coffee, administered for 12 weeks to 28 patients with RRMS could differentially modulate oxidative blood markers (lipoperoxidation, protein carbonylation and DNA oxidation) and inflammatory blood markers (protein levels of cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-10, gene expression of these cytokines, and NLRP3 and CASP-1 molecules, and C-reactive protein levels). The results indicate that a low concentration of GSC is capable of decreasing the plasma levels of oxidized DNA and pro-inflammatory cytokines of RRMS patients. The results support further research into the action of GSC on clinical symptoms, not only in patients with MS, but also with other neurological conditions.

      Graphical abstract



      caspase-1 ((CASP-1)), Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay ((ELISA)), Federal University of Santa Maria ((UFSM)), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase ((GOT)), glutamic pyruvic transaminase ((GPT)), guarana ((G)), Guarana (Selenium, L-carnitine, (GSC)), interferon gamma ((IFN-γ)), interleukin-1 beta ((IL-1β)), interleukin-6 ((IL-6)), interleukin-10 ((IL-10)), L-carnitine ((C)), multiple sclerosis ((MS)), National Health Surveillance Agency ((ANVISA)), oxidized DNA ((oxDNA)), Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul ((PUCRS)), reactive oxygen species ((ROS)), real-time polymerase chain reaction ((RT-PCR)), relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis ((RRMS)), selenium ((S)), standard deviation ((SD)), tumor necrosis factor alpha ((TNF-α))
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