Estimated prevalence of AQP4 positive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder and MOG antibody associated disease in São Paulo, Brazil

Published:December 23, 2022DOI:


      • The estimated prevalence of anti-AQP4 antibody positive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is relatively high in the city of São Paulo.
      • The estimated prevalence of MOG antibody associated disease (MOGAD) is relatively low in the city of São Paulo.



      Numerous studies addressed the prevalence of multiple sclerosis, but prevalence studies of NMOSD and, particularly, MOGAD are scarce. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of NMOSD and MOGAD in the city of São Paulo, based on the known prevalence of MS.


      In this observational study, we determined the total number of patients with central nervous system demyelinating disease on regular follow-up in a university referral center in São Paulo, from May 2019 to May 2021 according to the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS), NMOSD and MOGAD using the current diagnostic criteria for these diseases. We used the MS: NMOSD and MS: MOGAD ratios to estimate the ratio of these diseases in São Paulo, Brazil.


      We identified 968 patients with MS, 133 patients with AQP4 positive NMOSD, and 28 patients with MOGAD. We found the MS: NMOSD ratio of 7,28 and the MS: MOGAD ratio of 34,57. We estimated a prevalence of 2,1 per 100,000 inhabitants for NMOSD and of 0,4 per 100,000 inhabitants for MOGAD.


      The prevalence of NMOSD is high in São Paulo, but the prevalence of MOGAD is low when compared with the prevalence found in most of the studies reported to date.
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