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Association of self-reported adherence to the Mediterranean diet with anthropometric indices, comorbidities, and degree of disability in patients with multiple sclerosis

      Highlights

      • Iranian patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) showed moderate compliance with the Mediterranean diet.
      • The score of adherence to the Mediterranean diet did not show significant relationship with varied levels of disability.
      • Low adherence to the Mediterranean diet in underweight, normal, and overweight patients was significantly higher than in obese patients.

      Abstract

      Background

      One of the important challenges in the treatment of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) is determining the effective factors in the treatment of MS, including dietary adherence. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between adherence to the Mediterranean diet with anthropometric indices and the expanded disability status scale (EDSS) scores in patients with MS.

      Material and methods

      The present multicenter and cross-sectional study was conducted on patients with clinically definite MS (according to the 2017 revised McDonald criteria) who were referred to the MS clinics at medical centers affiliated to Shiraz and Tehran Universities of Medical Sciences during 2019. Disease phenotype, EDSS, waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), and comorbidities were assessed. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was measured with a 14-item modified Mediterranean Diet Adherence Questionnaire. In this questionnaire, a score of 0–5 indicates low adherence, a score of 6–9 shows moderate adherence, and a score of 10 and above demonstrates high adherence (healthy eating pattern).

      Results

      This study was performed on 478 patients with a mean age of 37.99 ± 9.60 years, out of which 352 patients (73.6%) were female. The percentage of low, medium, and high adherence to the Mediterranean diet in patients with MS was 26.4%, 64%, and 9.6%, respectively. The difference in the level of education between the groups based on adherence to the Mediterranean diet was statistically significant. Low adherence to the Mediterranean diet in underweight, normal, and overweight patients was, respectively, 1.31, 1.32, and 2.29 times higher than in obese patients. This increased risk was only significant in overweight patients (P = 0.019). The results revealed that the score of adherence to the Mediterranean diet had no significant relationship with mild (2.86 ± 2.18), moderate (2.76 ± 2.16), and severe (2.70 ± 2.02) levels of disability.

      Conclusion

      The level of adherence to the Mediterranean diet in Iranian patients with MS was moderate. This level was associated with BMI, such that low adherence to the Mediterranean diet was higher in overweight patients than obese patients.

      Keywords

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