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The effects of orthotics device on the balance control in multiple sclerosis patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis

  • Maryam Ashkar
    Affiliations
    PhD student of Orthotics and Prosthetics, Department of Orthotics and Prosthetics, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
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  • Reza Razeghinezhad
    Affiliations
    PhD student of Orthotics and Prosthetics, Department of Orthotics and Prosthetics, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
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  • Hossein Moghadasi Chevinlee
    Affiliations
    Ms student of Physical Therapy, Department of Physical Therapy, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
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  • Behnaz Tavakoli
    Affiliations
    PhD student of Orthotics and Prosthetics, Department of Orthotics and Prosthetics, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
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  • Masumeh Bagherzadeh Cham
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author.
    Affiliations
    Neuromusculoskeletal Research Center, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Firoozgar Hospital, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical sciences, Tehran, Iran

    Department of Orthotics & Prosthetics, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Iran University of Medical sciences, Tehran, Iran
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      Abstract

      Background

      Multiple sclerosis refers to a progressive autoimmune inflammatory disease in the central nervous system usually accompanied by balance disorder. Our systematic review aimed to investigate the effects of orthotic devices on balance control of multiple sclerosis patients.

      Methods

      The search procedure was according to the population, intervention, comparison, and outcome (PICO) strategy. We looked into PubMed, Embase, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Scopus databases and included all studies published since 1980. Two researchers did the searches separately and evaluated the selected papers’ quality based on the physiotherapy evidence database (PEDro) scale and Cochrane risk of bias tool. We did a meta-analysis to evaluate the interventions’ effects on the balance factors.

      Results

      We found nine studies, of which seven studies with 162 participants were included in our meta-analysis. Four studies investigated the effect of foot orthoses, one evaluated the effect of shoe modifications and four evaluated the effect of ankle foot orthoses. There was no significant immediate difference between the insole and control groups in center of pressure velocity change, C7 displacement, in both open and closed eyes conditions. Also, there was no significant immediate difference between ankle foot orthosis’ intervention and control groups in center of pressure velocity and displacement changes in antero-posterior and medio-lateral directions, in both open and closed eyes conditions. We could not do a meta-analysis for shoe modification.

      Conclusion

      Few studies have assessed the effects of orthoses on balance control in multiple sclerosis patients. Studies on ankle foot and foot orthoses show inconsistent results. According to our meta-analysis, orthotic interventions do not seem to improve the balance of people with multiple sclerosis.

      Keywords

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