Investigation of serum adropin levels and its relationship with hypothalamic atrophy in patients with multiple sclerosis


      • MS patients had significantly lower levels of adropin than the healthy controls (p = 0.003).
      • Adropin is expressed in the midbrain-hindbrain and performs its physiological function via hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) neurons. But no correlation was found between adropn levels and hypothalamic atrophy.
      • Adropin on endothelial cell protection is associated with increased expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) via neural recognition molecule 3 (NB3) /Notch. So adropin may be related to the CADASIL or pathophysiology of MS-like vasculopathy.


      Objective Adropin is expressed in vascular endothelial cells and regulates nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability by upregulating nitric oxide. In recent years, some studies have revealed its relationship with the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). Our aim in this study is to determine serum adropin levels in MS patients and to investigate adropin levels's relationship with hypothalamic atrophy.
      Methods A total of 80 people, 40 of whom had MS and 40 of whom were healthy volunteers, were included in the study. Serum samples were taken from all participants. Hypothalamus and pituitary diameters were calculated from magnetic resonance imaging of MS patients. The relationship between serum adropin levels and demographic characteristics, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), and hypothalamic atrophy were evaluated.
      Results The levels of adropin were 0.85±0.14 ng/mL in patients with MS and 2.96 ng/mL±0.285 ng/mL in the healthy controls. MS patients had significantly lower levels of adropin than the healthy controls (p = 0.003). Adropin has the highest diagnostic value (AUC=0.874, (95% CI, 0,800–0,947) as cut-off value (838.00), sensitivity (80.43%) and specificity (70.64%) in the MS group. In the study, serum adropin levels were not significantly correlated with 3 ventricle diameter (3VD) and pituitary diameter (PD) size (p = 0,968) and no significant relationships were determined between adropin and other clinical parameters.
      Conclusion As a potential diagnostic marker, adropin levels were significantly lower in MS patients than in those without. Comprehensive studies are needed to verify this entity.



      EDSS (Expanded Disability Status Scale), 3VD (3 ventricle diameter), PD (pituitary diameter), CNS (central nervous system), APC (antigen presenting cells), COX1 (cytochrome C oxidase 1), ENHO (Energy Homeostasis Associated), BBB (blood-brain barrier), CSX (Cardiac syndrome X), eNOS (endothelial nitric oxide synthase), HYP (hypothalamus), HPA (hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal), PVN (paraventricular nucleus), Nrf2 (Nuclear factor erythroid 2), Keap1 (Kelch-like ECH associated protein 1), Maf (Maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma)
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