- •Prognostic impact of serum and CSF biomarkers at diagnosis was evaluated in MS.
- •CSF IgG level and OCB count at diagnosis well predicted the subsequent EDSS score.
- •Derivatives of CSF IgG level showed stronger correlation with neurological outcomes.
- •Patients with primary progressive MS showed abnormally high CSF IgG levels.
- •CSF IgG and OCB are important predictors of long-term neurological disability in MS.
The association between routine laboratory findings, including cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers, and neurological outcomes in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we evaluated blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis results at diagnosis and before treatment in patients with MS and assessed their correlations with neurological outcomes.
Materials and methods
In this study, 38 consecutive patients with MS (36 with relapsing-remitting MS and 2 with primary progressive MS) were recruited. Before treatment, all patients underwent routine CSF analysis at the time of diagnosis, including evaluation of albumin and immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels. The association between laboratory data and neurological outcomes was comprehensively evaluated. Subsequent neurological outcome was assessed by using the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score at 1 year and 5 years after diagnosis and relapse frequency in the first year and in the first 5 years.
The IgG level in the CSF (rho = 0.46, p = 0.004), oligoclonal band count (rho = 0.61, p = 0.006), ratio of IgG and total protein in CSF (rho = 0.59, p < 0.0001), and ratio of IgG and albumin in CSF (rho = 0.67, p < 0.0001) showed moderate to strong correlations with the subsequent EDSS score 1 year after diagnosis. These variables still showed significant correlations with EDSS 5 years later. Albumin and lactate dehydrogenase levels in CSF did not correlate with the subsequent EDSS score. Relapse frequency did not correlate with any of the studied serum and CSF biomarkers.
IgG levels in CSF at MS diagnosis are significantly correlated with the level of neurological disability independent of the relapse frequency. Markers of intrathecal IgG synthesis, such as the IgG index, are useful in estimating the present and subsequent clinical severity in patients with MS.
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Published online: July 06, 2020
Accepted: July 6, 2020
Received in revised form: July 4, 2020
Received: June 23, 2020
© 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.