Sex hormones secondary players in Susac's syndrome


      • First case of Susac´s Syndrome described in a female-male transgender.
      • Sex imbalance cannot be explained only by the influence of sex hormones.
      • Genetic configurations may explain the sex imbalance in autoimmune diseases.


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Antulov R.
        • Holjar Erlic I.
        • Perkovic O.
        • et al.
        Susac´s syndrome during pregnancy – the first Croatian case.
        J. Neurol. Sci. 2014; 341: 162-164
        • Dörr J.
        • Krautwald S.
        • Wildemann B.
        • et al.
        Characteristics of Susac syndrome: a review of all reported cases.
        Nat. Rev. Neurol. 2013; 9: 307-316
        • Elhai M.
        • Avouac J.
        • Walker U.A.
        • et al.
        A gender gap in primary and secondary heart dysfunctions in systemic sclerosis: a EUSTAR prospective study.
        Ann. Rheum. Dis. 2010; 0: 1-7
        • Garg N.
        • Reddel S.W.
        • Miller D.H.
        • et al.
        The corpus callosum in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis and other CNS demyelinating and inflammatory diseases.
        J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry. 2015; 86: 1374-1382
        • Gooren L.J.
        • Kreukels B.
        • Lapauw B.
        • Giltay E.J.
        (Patho)physiology of cross-sex hormone administration to transsexual people: the potential impact of male-female genetic differences.
        Andrologia. 2015; 47: 5-19
        • González D.A.
        • Buenaventura B.D.
        • Rodríguez Pérez M.C.
        • et al.
        Sex hormones and autoimmunity.
        Immunol. Lett. 2010; 133: 6-13
        • Gross C.C.
        • Meyer C.
        • Bhatia U.
        • et al.
        CD8+ T cell-mediated endotheliopathy is a targetable mechanism of neuro-inflammation in Susac syndrome.
        Nat. Commun. 2019; 10: 5779
        • Hardy T.A.
        • O´Brien B.
        • Gerbis N.
        • et al.
        Brain histopathology in three cases of Susac´s syndrome: implications for lesion pathogenesis and treatment.
        J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry. 2015; 86: 582-584
        • Jarius S.
        • Neumayer B.
        • Wandinger K.P.
        • et al.
        Anti-endothelial serum antibodies in a patient with Susac´s syndrome.
        J. Neurol. Sci. 2009; 285: 256-261
        • Jarius S.
        • Kleffner I.
        • Dörr J.
        • et al.
        Clinical, paraclinical and serological findings in Susac syndrome: an international multicenter study.
        J. Neuroinflamm. 2014; 11: 46
        • Ramos-Ruperto L.
        • Martínez-Sánchez N.
        • Bartha-Rasero J.L.
        • et al.
        Susac syndrome and pregnancy: a relationship to clarify. About two cases and review of the literature.
        J. Matern.-Fetal Neonatal Med. 2020; 14: 1-6
        • Rennebohm R.M.
        • Susac J.O.
        Treatment of Susac´s syndrome.
        J. Neurol. Sci. 2007; 257: 215-220
        • Rennebohm R.
        • Susac J.O.
        • Egan R.A.
        • et al.
        Susac's Syndrome–update.
        J. Neurol. Sci. 2010; 299: 86-91
        • Susac J.O.
        Susac's syndrome: the triad of microangiopathy of the brain and retina with hearing loss in young women.
        Neurology. 1994; 44: 591-593