Research Article| Volume 25, P271-275, October 2018

Effects of cigarette smoking on respiratory problems and functional levels in multiple sclerosis patients

Published:August 17, 2018DOI:


      • Smoking increases respiratory symptoms even in MS patients with a good EDSS scores.
      • Smoking consumption increases perceived severity of dyspnea in MS patients.
      • Smokers with MS reduce daily walking distances and increase daily sedentary time.
      • Respiratory symptoms lead to a further reduction in the functional levels in MS.



      The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of smoking on respiratory symptoms and functional levels by questioning use of cigarette in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients.


      A questionnaire was sent via e-mail to the 135 MS patients, who clinically diagnosed with MS and EDSS score was determined.Perceived dyspnea was assessed by the mMRC scale.The severity of dyspnea and fatigue perceived during rest and effort was assessed by the mBORG scale.Functional levels of the patients were assessed by asking the average daily walking distance and the average sitting time daily.


      The mean EDSS score of the smoker and the non-smoker group were 2.85 ± 0.75, 2.96 ± 1.03 respectively(p = 0.48).There was no statistically difference found between groups in terms of age,height,weight,BMI,gender,EDSS scores(p > 0.05).The rate of cough, sputum and severity of perceived dyspnea was statistically higher in the smoker group(p < 0.05).The mean walking distance daily of the smokers was statistically lower (p < 0.001).The smoker group had a high level of sedanter lifestyle(p < 0.05).


      It has been proven that smoking increases respiratory problems even in MS patients with a good EDSS score.Moreover, these problems lead to a further reduction in the functional levels of the patients, in addition to the disease progression.


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