- •There is strong evidence that smoking plays a causal role in MS risk.
- •There is moderate evidence that smoking plays a causal role in MS progression.
- •More research is needed examining the link between second-hand smoking and MS.
- •Anti-smoking policies and programs should consider MS as an additional outcome.
Abbreviations:CDMS (Clinically Definite Multiple Sclerosis), CI (Confidence Interval), CIS (Clinically Isolated Syndrome), CNS (Central Nervous System), EBV (Epstein-Barr Virus), GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation), HLA (Human Leukocyte Antigen), HR (Hazard Ratio), IV (Inverse Variance), MS (Multiple Sclerosis), OR (Odds Ratio), PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses), RR (Risk Ratio), RRMS (Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis), SE (Standard Error), SPMS (Secondary-Progressive Multiple Sclerosis)
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☆This review was registered in PROSPERO (registration number: CRD42015025039).