- •EBV has a strong long-standing association with MS but with conflicting evidence.
- •An estimated 90% of the human population are infected by EBV, yet only a small proportion develop ‘EBV related diseases’.
- •EBV presence within the Central Nervous System has not been conclusively shown.
- •Molecular mimicry causing CD8+ T cells to target myelin basic protein can be achieved by pathogens other than just EBV.
- •MS may be the failure of viral clearance and driven by multiple pathogens.
Abbreviations:CNS (Central Nervous System), CSF (Cerebral Spinal Fluid), EBV (Epstein-Barr Virus), HC (Healthy Control), EAE (Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis), HERVS (human endogenous retroviruses), LCMV (lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus), MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex), MOG (Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein), MS (Multiple Sclerosis), MSRV (Multiple Sclerosis Associated Retrovirus), PBMCs (Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells)
2. Epstein-Barr virus biology and route of infection
3. The association of EBV and MS
3.1 History of IM
3.2 Seropositivity in MS
3.3 Altered immune responses to EBV in MS
3.4 Conflicting evidence of EBV presence in the CNS
- Serafini B.
- Severa M.
- Columba-Cabezas S.
- Rosicarelli B.
- Veroni C.
- Chiappetta G.
- et al.
3.5 Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
4. Potential roles of EBV in MS pathogenesis/ Mechanisms
4.1 EBV cross-reactivity/ Molecular mimicry
4.2 αB-Crystallin/ ‘Mistaken Self’
4.3 Bystander damage hypothesis
4.4 Autoreactive B cells infected with EBV hypothesis
4.5 EBV interaction with human endogenous retroviruses
- Derfuss T.
- Curtin F.
- Guebelin C.
- Bridel C.
- Rasenack M.
- Matthey A.
- et al.
Conflicts of interest
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